Prehistory is the period in the past before people could write, there are three major periods of prehistory. The palaeolithic, the Mesolithic and the Neolithic. The paleolithic is the earliest period of the Stone Age.the three age system is three consecutive time periods named for their respective predominate to making technologies: Stone Age, Bronze age, and Iron Age.

Homo sapiens appeared very long ago in sri Lanka. Which some experts assert is the true  “cradle of civilization”, the journey towards civilization lasted thousands of years and evidence of Paleolithic and Mesolithic cultures has been unearth. Establishing the existence of the stone age :balanagoda culture around 5000BC. This era of civilization is known as the stone age as only stone implements were used by primitive man. Recent finding suggest that the domestication of plants may have surfaced as early as 10,000 BC or even earlier. Agriculture has always been the mainstay of his “granary of the east”. cultivators were accorded the highest honor creating a bond between Man and the Land.

Sri Lankan Ritual people thoroughly belived in god, and the lives of Nagha “snake” people and “yaksha” called Deviled.

The recorded history of the Sri Lanka begins with the arrival of Vijaya, an exiled prince from Bengal in Eastern India on the day of the Buddha demise in 543BC. This Indo-Aryan invasion of the island. Then inhabited by tribes of yaksha(lit spirits)-initially took place in “ Tambapanni” (copper-colored sands) in what is probably Mannar in the Northwestern coast of the island.

The Arayan introduced the use of iron and an advanced from of agriculture and irrigation systems. They also introduced a stable system of government. Vijaya made Thambapanni his capital and ruled they’re for 38 years. According to the chronicles, Vijaya was succeeded as king by his nephew Panduvasdeva, who established his capital at Panduwas Nuwara in the 5th century BC.

Anuradhagama, founded earlier by a minister named Anuradha, was made the capital of a powerful kingdom under the rule of king Pandukabaya and renamed “Anuradhapura” thereafter three kings who named King Abhaya, Pandukabaya adnd Mutasiva held the kingship till to king Devanampiyathisa came to the throne.

During the reign of king Devanampiyathissa, Buddhisam was introduced to Sri Lanka in 307 BC by Arahath Mahinda. The son of emperor Ashoka of india. This is the most important event in Sri Lanka history. As it set the country on the path to cultural and religion greatness.

Sri Lanka was subjected to invasion from 3rd century BC onwards. As early as 237BC two Tamil adventurers usurped the Sinhalese throne and rule for 22 years. Later chola general Elara seized power for 44 years until he was overthrown and slain by king Dutugemunu, who succeeded in unifying the country in 161 BC.

The rise of powerful south Indian states, there are repeated invasions from south india. Until the kingdom of Anuradhapura, exposed to constant attack and conquest, in the 11th century king Vijayabahu repulsed the invaders and established his capital in Polonnaruwa.

Invasions continued intermittently and the capital was moved to Dambadeniya in 1232, yapahuwa in 1272, Kurunegala 1302, Gampola in 1341 and kotte 1415 untill the Portuguese arrived in 1505. When the main city at kotte in west part of island.  The Portuguese came in to trade spices but assumed the rule of coastal area until did the Dutch who ousted them thereafter. The Dutch were in their turn displaced by the British in 1796. During the entire period of colonial contest and conquests. The highland kingdom, with its capital Kandy. Fiercely retained its independence despite many was ceded in 1815 to the British. Who thus established their rule over the whole island.  

The struggle against the colonial power began in 1817, during the period of Governor Robbert Brownringg. The uprising was led by Vilbave and Keppetipola Disawe but was brutally suppressed by the British who captured and beheaded these heroes.  The next struggle against the British was the Mathale Rebellion led by Puran Appu and Gongalegoda Banda in 1847-48. This two was suppressed by the British army. A peaceful political independence movement which aimed at achieving independence from the British Empire was initialed around the turn of 20th century led by educated middle class and Sri Lanka finally achieved independence on 4th February 1948.